Recombinant DNA Technology

Recombinant DNA Technology has the same process as DNA Cloning and Molecular cloning as well as gene cloning. This process involves transferring DNA fragments that are of interest to a scientist from one organism to another self replicating and genetic element. In addition to this the DNA can be propagated within a host cell that is foreign in nature. This is one of the types of cloning that has become very common in molecular biology labs all around the world. When scientists study genes it is different from cloning humans or animal cloning because the focus is on specific bacteria or cells as opposed to multicellular organisms. Many scientists who use this type of cloning process may only deal with one particular gene as opposed to cloning animals and the focus on the replication of whole organisms and genes. In order to clone a gene, DNA fragments that house the gene that scientists are interested in become isolated from the chromosomal DNA because of the use of restriction enzymes. After this process is complete the fragment is united with one of the plasmids that is cut with the exact same restriction enzymes. When chromosomal DNA is combined with the cloning vector it is then transformed into recombinant DNA molecules and if these molecules are joined with a suitable host cell then they can be reproduced with the DNA of the host cell.

In terms of the plasmids that are used in this process they can carry a lot of foreign DNA (up to 20,000bp). Other cloning vectors that scientists use in laboratory settings include viruses and bacteria artificial chromosomes as well as artificial yeast chromosomes. In addition to this, The Cosmid is an artificially made cloning vector and this can carry 45kb of DNA whether foreign or not. The Cosmid can also be encased in lambda phage particles in order to infect E coli cells.