Reproductive Cloning Process

When people think of human cloning and animal cloning they are usually thinking about one of the more popular types of cloning called reproductive cloning. Reproductive cloning has the potential to help generate donor organs for humans as well as other human tissue in the future though the reproductive cloning process has traditionally been used to generate animals that have the same nuclear DNA molecules as an already existing animal without the process of birthing. One well known example of reproductive cloning is when the sheep Dolly was cloned in 1997. Through somatic cell nuclear transfer the cloning of Dolly was possible. This process involves the transfer of DNA molecules from the nucleus of an adult animal cell to an animal egg that has a removed nucleus. The egg that has been reconstructed using the donor cell’s DNA then must be treated with some chemicals to stimulate the cell’s division and once the cell grows enough it is then put inside the uterus of a suitable female host until birth occurs. This is how the animals that have been cloned throughout history have been born and this is how Dolly the sheep was born as well.

Many people may think that the cloning process gives birth to completely identical clones of a donor animal but this is not true. The clones that come from the reproductive cloning process have differences which are interesting to note. In regards to this only the chromosomal DNA is a match to the donor. In addition to this some of the genetic materials that are found in the clone come from the actual egg that it was birthed from with animal cloning. This is how it would work with human cloning as well. The Mitochondria and the cytoplasm of the donor egg serve as power sources for the clone’s cells and these parts of the egg also have their own DNA.