Molecular Cloning ProcessBioengineering is perhaps one of the most remarkable technological developments that the humanity has witnessed in the last few decades. Nowadays specialists can use the development in bio engineering to do things that people have never dreamed of such as create better medication and better medical computers but also to clone organisms. Cloning is perhaps one of the most highly debated subjects in the history of bioengineering largely as a result of its ethical controversies. However, cloning is not only performed on animals and its fundamentals can be used for other purposes as well. Here one can learn more about one of the major parts of genetic cloning, molecular cloning.
Molecular cloning is a process through which one molecule is multiplied into a certain number of molecules. Molecular cloning is used in various biological experiments and even in practical applications involving protein production or genetic fingerprinting, among others. Commonly the DNA of an organism or tissue as well as gene is what are actually being cloned and this process takes place into four main steps. Firstly, specialists need to carry on a different process through which they break apart a particular strand of the DNA, operation that is referred to as fragmentation. Then, the DNA is being placed or glued together in a desired sequence which is known under the name of ligation. Furthermore, specialists need to perform transfection which basically entails inserting the newly created DNA into cells. Lastly, the cells that have been successfully transfected are selected through a process of screening.
In general, these are the four main steps that one needs to conclude in molecular cloning. However, specialists may choose different cloning strategies which all need to involve isolating the DNA of interest, a ligation procedure followed by transfection and then cultivation of the newly obtained DNA. The process, no matter the strategy chosen will then end in selecting the cells that have been successfully cloned.
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